KSR Pain Evidence

KSR Pain Evidence is a database which critically appraises systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the area of pain.


KSR Pain Evidence provides a user-friendly, time-efficient way to access best available evidence in pain management.  We summarise systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the topic of pain since 2010 and provide a short, accessible “bottom line”.  Our “bottom line” gives the key clinically relevant implications of the results reported in the article and includes information about the reliability of these results. The database also includes all randomised controlled trials on the topic of pain since 2010.


The KSR Pain Evidence database has been developed with the aim of helping users to make sense of the ever increasing volume and complexity of evidence, in relation to decision making in health care.

Who should use the KSR Pain Evidence database?

  • clinicians
  • health care professionals
  • primary care practitioners
  • nurses
  • midwives
  • physiotherapists
  • allied health professionals
  • guideline writers
  • systematic reviewers
  • researchers
  • healthcare managers and commissioners
  • patients and carers
  • the public
  • …this list is not exhaustive!


This database was developed by Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd.


Pain management is a complex topic and covers many clinical specialities.  The database was developed to provide an easy to search resource with usable summary information on systematic reviews and meta-analyses.  In many articles meta-analysis is a term used interchangeably for systematic reviews, hence these have also been included and critically appraised.


The KSR Pain Evidence database brings together information on all systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials of pain management.  Trials are identified using a highly sensitive, comprehensive search strategy that is compatible with standard Cochrane methodology.


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